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Detailed Information About Circumscribed Alopecia

Circumscribed alopecia is a chronic inflammatory disease, which affects hair follicles and sometimes nails. Illness declares itself by round noncicatricial coming out of hair on a head, face and other sites of skin.

Epidemiology. Everyone can get this disease at any age, and morbid event are interracial and equally frequent both for men, and for women.

Usually, alopecia areata is characterized by hair loss on a head and other sites of a skin, where hair grows: on a face, limbs and body. Recently appeared foci of alopecia are usually slightly hyperemic, ends of broken hairs can be on its edge. Foci look like a normal skin.

Practically all patients have more than one episode of disease. Relapse can progress in a form of small local foci of alopecia or vast foci; sometimes all hair comes out on a head and on body. When there are a small number of regions of hair loss during 1 year 80 % of patients suffer a relapse, 34—50 % of patients recuperate from disease. 14—25 % of patients lose all hair on a head (total form), 1- 2 % of patients lose hair completely both on a head and on a body (universal form). Treatment of universal form of alopecia is possible in less than 10 % of cases.

According to different researchers, 5 – 20 % of people have inherited type of alopecia. Possible associative links are described for huge number of genes, including main complex of histocompatibility, genes of cytokinins and immunoglobulins, which allows assuming multifactorial nature of genetic predisposition to alopecia circumscripta.

Aetiology of disease is unknown. The majority of authors think that alopecia has autoimmune nature. Evidence of immune character of circumscribed alopecia is a scientific research corroborating an abnormal expression in hair follicle of tissue-specific antigen of two classes of main complex of histocompatibility.
Disease of hair follicles is characterized by formation inflammatory cellular infiltrate round the hair follicle, which consists of CD8 + СD4 + lymphocyte, macrophages and Langerhans’ cells 110. As a result of an inflammation hair follicle loses possibility to support anagenic hair growth, which breaks off and comes out as a result of trichomalathion or prematurely started telogen.

Preventive measures. There aren’t any preventive measures, because aetiology of disease is unknown.

Screening. Attempts of researchers to find any significant changes in inner organs and systems were not a success. Most of those patients, who have circumscribed alopecia, are absolutely healthy. Different pathological body states, which doctors detect during various researches, do not exceed frequency of its occurrence in the organisms of patients with other pathology. As an exception doctors can only name illnesses of autoimmune character, which more often than others are associated with alopecia.

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