August 2021
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Autism Spectrum disorders

These children have defective communication and social problems too. These children are not able to chatter, or point out at things, or even gesture at the age of one. They don’t start speaking at age of 1/1-2 years. At age 2, they are not able to put two words together while speaking. Not smiling is a sign of ASD. They just line up all the toys when a set of toys is put together for them to play and get obsessed with one of those toys only. They occasionally behave as though they are hard of hearing. They establish less eye contact with others and exhibit loss of language or social skills. These unfortunate children are the victims of ASD (autism spectrum disorder) which is categorized into autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS. Recent findings of a survey conducted showed that autism was about 1.3 per thousand people and the Asperger Syndrome was about 0.3 per thousand people. A significant number of 6.0-6.5 people per 1,000 people had ASD with most of them having PDD-NOS characteristics.


Types of autistic spectrum disorder:


The plethora of problems that ASD brings in with it will include mental retardation, sensory problems, seizures, tuberous sclerosis, and fragile X syndrome. There is no sense of balance when it comes to responses of an autistic child to sensory stimuli. There would be distorted exaggerated behavioral response of an autistic patient to any external stimuli.  Senses of sound, smell, and textures are not well balanced in the brains of these children. A buzzing telephone alone would cause them to bring the roof down. An airplane going over the top of your head would only mean a pandemonium in the house of an autistic child.


Mental retardation also seems to bother some of the kids with ASD. But some of them may have good linguistic abilities associated with poor vision. These children have good language skills but the vision is somewhat disturbed.


Adequate sleep should be ensured for these children and also they should avoid getting high fever as they are prone to develop seizures because of it. A seizure is characterized by continuous staring spells, fits, and unusual movements.


Another factor is to be checked is the fragile x syndrome in a child with ASD.  Around 2-5% of children are affected by fragile X syndrome.  A part of X chromosome appears fragile and pinched when look under a microscope. One in the two children of the same couple is born with this problem. Therefore, the couple may conceive a male child with that similar syndrome if the first born is a female with this syndrome.


1 – 4% of children suffering with ASD will have (TB) Tuberous sclerosis which is nothing but tumors growing in their brains or other vital organs.

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